C:\! �� ����\[������� �����] �������\����� – ��\peat_video.txt:

        Peat, an organic fuel consisting of spongy material formed by the partial decomposition of organic matter, primarily plant material, in wetlands such as swamps, muskegs, bogs, fens, and moors. The development of peat is favoured by warm, moist climatic conditions; however, peat can develop even in cold regions such as Siberia, Canada, and Scandinavia. Peat is only a minor contributor to the world energy supply, but large deposits occur in Canada, China, Indonesia, Russia, Scandinavia, and the United States. In the early 21st century the top four peat producers in the world were Finland, Ireland, Belarus, and Sweden. Major users of peat include Finland, Ireland, Russia, and Sweden.

        Peat is usually hand-cut, although progress has been made in the excavation and spreading of peat by mechanical methods. Peat may be cut by spade in the form of blocks, which are spread out to dry. When dry, the blocks weigh from 0.34 to 0.91 kg (0.75 to 2 pounds). In one mechanized method, a dredger or excavator digs the peat from the drained bog and delivers it to a macerator (a device that softens and separates a material into its component parts through soaking), which extrudes the peat pulp through a rectangular opening. The pulp is cut into blocks, which are spread to dry. Maceration tends to yield more uniform shrinkage and a denser and tougher fuel. Hydraulic excavating can also be used, particularly in bogs that contain roots and tree trunks. The peat is washed down by a high-pressure water jet, and the pulp runs to a sump. There, after slight maceration, it is pumped to a draining ground in a layer, which, after partial drying, is cut up and dried further.

        Peats may be divided into several types, including fibric, coarse hemic, hemic, fine hemic, and sapric, based on their macroscopic, microscopic, and chemical characteristics. Peat may be distinguished from lower-ranked coals on the basis of four characteristics: peats generally contain free cellulose, more than 75 percent moisture, and less than 60 percent carbon, and they can be cut with a knife. The transition to brown coal takes place slowly and is usually reached at depths ranging from 100 to 400 metres (approximately 330 to 1,300 feet).

        A loss of just 1·5% of the world’s peatlands releases the equivalent of all the carbon emissions humans create worldwide in a year. We need to keep that carbon locked up under our feet, rather than digging it up and putting it on our gardens, from where most of it will be lost back to the atmosphere.

        11 March 2015 by Mark Reed

        Like low-energy light bulbs, if we don’t start buying peat-free voluntarily, peat compost may eventually be banned. The government aims to phase out the use of peat by amateur gardeners in England by 2020. They are monitoring peat use and will be reviewing progress next year to see if further measures are needed.

        For me, it’s a bit like the argument over low-energy light bulbs – we all knew they were good for the environment for years, but many of us didn’t switch until high-energy ones were banned. For some of us that was because early low-energy light bulbs took ages to warm up, or we balked at the higher price – or just kept buying what we’d always bought out of habit. Early peat-free composts often didn’t perform well, and there were scare stories about people finding nails or glass in them, but these issues are now things of the past.

        If you’re a serious gardener you might find it hard to avoid peat use completely – some plants will always prefer peat, like carnivorous plants and ericaceous (acid-loving) species. But you can mimic peat with specially-formulated ericaceous compost or by adding pine needles or bracken to your own compost to increase its acidity. Some enterprising hill farmers in the Lake District now sell peat-free compost made from bracken, as well as ericaceous compost made from local wool, which provides slow-release nitrogen and better water retention.

        For me, it’s a bit like the argument over low-energy light bulbs – we all knew they were good for the environment for years, but many of us didn’t switch until high-energy ones were banned. For some of us that was because early low-energy light bulbs took ages to warm up, or we balked at the higher price – or just kept buying what we’d always bought out of habit. Early peat-free composts often didn’t perform well, and there were scare stories about people finding nails or glass in them, but these issues are now things of the past.

        • You’ll be protecting important wildlife and reducing your contribution to climate change.
        • Peat-free composts are typically made using waste materials, reducing the amount of waste we send to landfill.
        • You’ll be supporting the UK peat-free compost industry and UK jobs, instead of overseas peat-extraction industries.
        • You’re unlikely to notice the difference: for most amateur gardeners the performance will be the same (though some like to adapt watering and feeding regimes to get the most out of peat-free composts).

        Gardeners like using peat because of its consistency and water-holding properties. But it wasn’t until the 1970s that people started using peat in a big way. The greatest gardeners of history – people like John Tradescant and George Sinclair – made their own peat-free composts.